7 Benefits and Uses of CBD Oil (Plus Side Effects)
Cannabidiol is a popular natural remedy used for many common ailments.
Better known as CBD, it is one of over 100 chemical compounds known as cannabinoids found in the cannabis or marijuana plant, Cannabis sativa ( 1 ).
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive cannabinoid found in cannabis, and causes the sensation of getting “high” that’s often associated with marijuana. However, unlike THC, CBD is not psychoactive.
This quality makes CBD an appealing option for those who are looking for relief from pain and other symptoms without the mind-altering effects of marijuana or certain pharmaceutical drugs.
CBD oil is made by extracting CBD from the cannabis plant, then diluting it with a carrier oil like coconut or hemp seed oil.
It’s gaining momentum in the health and wellness world, with some scientific studies confirming it may ease symptoms of ailments like chronic pain and anxiety.
Here are seven health benefits of CBD oil that are backed by scientific evidence.
Marijuana has been used to treat pain as far back as 2900 B.C. ( 2 ).
More recently, scientists have discovered that certain components of marijuana, including CBD, are responsible for its pain-relieving effects.
The human body contains a specialized system called the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is involved in regulating a variety of functions including sleep, appetite, pain and immune system response ( 3 ).
The body produces endocannabinoids, which are neurotransmitters that bind to cannabinoid receptors in your nervous system.
Studies have shown that CBD may help reduce chronic pain by impacting endocannabinoid receptor activity, reducing inflammation and interacting with neurotransmitters ( 4 ).
For example, one study in rats found that CBD injections reduced pain response to surgical incision, while another rat study found that oral CBD treatment significantly reduced sciatic nerve pain and inflammation ( 5 , 6 ).
Several human studies have found that a combination of CBD and THC is effective in treating pain related to multiple sclerosis and arthritis.
An oral spray called Sativex, which is a combination of THC and CBD, is approved in several countries to treat pain related to multiple sclerosis.
One study of 47 people with multiple sclerosis examined the effects of taking Sativex for one month. The participants experienced improvements in pain, walking, and muscle spasms. Still, the study didn’t include any control group and placebo effects cannot be ruled out ( 7 ).
Another study found that Sativex significantly improved pain during movement, pain at rest and sleep quality in 58 people with rheumatoid arthritis ( 8 ).
Anxiety and depression are common mental health disorders that can have devastating impacts on health and well-being.
According to the World Health Organization, depression is the single largest contributor to disability worldwide, while anxiety disorders are ranked sixth (9).
Anxiety and depression are usually treated with pharmaceutical drugs, which can cause a number of side effects including drowsiness, agitation, insomnia, sexual dysfunction and headache ( 10 ).
What’s more, medications like benzodiazepines can be addictive and may lead to substance abuse ( 11 ).
CBD oil has shown promise as a treatment for both depression and anxiety, leading many who live with these disorders to become interested in this natural approach.
In one Brazilian study, 57 men received either oral CBD or a placebo 90 minutes before they underwent a simulated public speaking test. The researchers found that a 300-mg dose of CBD was the most effective at significantly reducing anxiety during the test.
The placebo, a 150-mg dose of CBD, and a 600-mg dose of CBD had little to no effect on anxiety ( 12 ).
CBD oil has even been used to safely treat insomnia and anxiety in children with post-traumatic stress disorder ( 13 ).
CBD has also shown antidepressant-like effects in several animal studies ( 14 , 15 ).
These qualities are linked to CBD’s ability to act on the brain’s receptors for serotonin, a neurotransmitter that regulates mood and social behavior.
CBD may help reduce symptoms related to cancer and side effects related to cancer treatment, like nausea, vomiting and pain.
One study looked at the effects of CBD and THC in 177 people with cancer-related pain who did not experience relief from pain medication.
Those treated with an extract containing both compounds experienced a significant reduction in pain compared to those who received only THC extract ( 16 ).
CBD may also help reduce chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, which are among the most common chemotherapy-related side effects for those with cancer ( 17 ).
Though there are drugs that help with these distressing symptoms, they are sometimes ineffective, leading some people to seek alternatives.
A study of 16 people undergoing chemotherapy found that a one-to-one combination of CBD and THC administered via mouth spray reduced chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting better than standard treatment alone ( 18 ).
Some test-tube and animal studies have even shown that CBD may have anticancer properties. For example, one test-tube study found that concentrated CBD induced cell death in human breast cancer cells ( 19 ).
Another study showed that CBD inhibited the spread of aggressive breast cancer cells in mice ( 20 ).
However, these are test-tube and animal studies, so they can only suggest what might work in people. More studies in humans are needed before conclusions can be made.
Acne is a common skin condition that affects more than 9% of the population ( 21 ).
It is thought to be caused by a number of factors, including genetics, bacteria, underlying inflammation and the overproduction of sebum, an oily secretion made by sebaceous glands in the skin ( 22 , 23).
Based on recent scientific studies, CBD oil may help treat acne due to its anti-inflammatory properties and ability to reduce sebum production.
One test-tube study found that CBD oil prevented sebaceous gland cells from secreting excessive sebum, exerted anti-inflammatory actions and prevented the activation of “pro-acne” agents like inflammatory cytokines ( 24 ).
Another study had similar findings, concluding that CBD may be an efficient and safe way to treat acne, thanks in part to its remarkable anti-inflammatory qualities ( 25 ).
Though these results are promising, human studies exploring the effects of CBD on acne are needed.
Researchers believe that CBD’s ability to act on the endocannabinoid system and other brain signaling systems may provide benefits for those with neurological disorders.
In fact, one of the most studied uses for CBD is in treating neurological disorders like epilepsy and multiple sclerosis. Though research in this area is still relatively new, several studies have shown promising results.
Sativex, an oral spray consisting of CBD and THC, has been proven to be a safe and effective way to reduce muscle spasticity in people with multiple sclerosis.
One study found that Sativex reduced spasms in 75% of 276 people with multiple sclerosis who were experiencing muscle spasticity that was resistant to medications ( 26 ).
Another study gave 214 people with severe epilepsy 0.9–2.3 grams of CBD oil per pound (2–5 g/kg) of body weight. Their seizures reduced by a median of 36.5% ( 27 ).
One more study found that CBD oil significantly reduced seizure activity in children with Dravet syndrome, a complex childhood epilepsy disorder, compared to a placebo ( 28 ).
However, it’s important to note that some people in both these studies experienced adverse reactions associated with CBD treatment, such as convulsions, fever and fatigue.
CBD has also been researched for its potential effectiveness in treating several other neurological diseases.
For example, several studies have shown that treatment with CBD improved quality of life and sleep quality for people with Parkinson’s disease ( 29 , 30 ).
Additionally, animal and test-tube studies have shown that CBD may decrease inflammation and help prevent the neurodegeneration associated with Alzheimer’s disease ( 31 ).
In one long-term study, researchers gave CBD to mice genetically predisposed to Alzheimer’s disease, finding that it helped prevent cognitive decline ( 32 ).
Recent research has linked CBD with several benefits for the heart and circulatory system, including the ability to lower high blood pressure.
High blood pressure is linked to higher risks of a number of health conditions, including stroke, heart attack and metabolic syndrome ( 33 ).
Studies indicate that CBD may be able to help with high blood pressure.
One recent study treated nine healthy men with one dose of 600 mg of CBD oil and found it reduced resting blood pressure, compared to a placebo.
The same study also gave the men stress tests that normally increase blood pressure. Interestingly, the single dose of CBD led the men to experience a smaller blood pressure increase than normal in response to these tests ( 34 ).
Researchers have suggested that the stress- and anxiety-reducing properties of CBD are responsible for its ability to help lower blood pressure.
Additionally, several animal studies have demonstrated that CBD may help reduce the inflammation and cell death associated with heart disease due to its powerful antioxidant and stress-reducing properties.
For example, one study found that treatment with CBD reduced oxidative stress and prevented heart damage in diabetic mice with heart disease ( 35 ).
CBD has been studied for its role in treating a number of health issues other than those outlined above.
Though more studies are needed, CBD is thought to provide the following health benefits:
- Antipsychotic effects: Studies suggest that CBD may help people with schizophrenia and other mental disorders by reducing psychotic symptoms ( 36 ).
- Substance abuse treatment: CBD has been shown to modify circuits in the brain related to drug addiction. In rats, CBD has been shown to reduce morphine dependence and heroin-seeking behavior ( 37 ).
- Anti-tumor effects: In test-tube and animal studies, CBD has demonstrated anti-tumor effects. In animals, it has been shown to prevent the spread of breast, prostate, brain, colon and lung cancer ( 38 ).
- Diabetes prevention: In diabetic mice, treatment with CBD reduced the incidence of diabetes by 56% and significantly reduced inflammation ( 39 ).
Though CBD is generally well tolerated and considered safe, it may cause adverse reactions in some people.
Side effects noted in studies include ( 40 ):
- Changes in appetite and weight
CBD is also known to interact with several medications. Before you start using CBD oil, discuss it with your doctor to ensure your safety and avoid potentially harmful interactions ( 41 ).
This is especially important if you take medications or supplements that come with a “grapefruit warning.” Both grapefruit and CBD interfere with cytochromes P450 (CYPs), a group of enzymes that are important to drug metabolism (42).
One study performed on mice showed that CBD-rich cannabis extracts have the potential to cause liver toxicity. However, some the mice in the study were force-fed extremely large doses of the extract (43).
CBD oil has been studied for its potential role in easing symptoms of many common health issues, including anxiety, depression, acne and heart disease.
For those with cancer, it may even provide a natural alternative for pain and symptom relief.
Research on the potential health benefits of CBD oil is ongoing, so new therapeutic uses for this natural remedy are sure to be discovered.
Though there is much to be learned about the efficacy and safety of CBD, results from recent studies suggest that CBD may provide a safe, powerful natural treatment for many health issues.
If you’re interested in trying CBD, you can purchase many products online, including gummies, oils, and lotions.
Is CBD Legal? Hemp-derived CBD products (with less than 0.3 percent THC) are legal on the federal level, but are still illegal under some state laws. Marijuana-derived CBD products are illegal on the federal level, but are legal under some state laws. Check your state’s laws and those of anywhere you travel. Keep in mind that nonprescription CBD products are not FDA-approved, and may be inaccurately labeled.
Cannabidiol, or CBD, is a chemical compound in marijuana with a variety of uses. Here are 7 benefits of CBD oil.
What you should know about CBD
Cannabis plants contain a class of compounds called cannabinoids. “We’ve identified just over 100 of them,” says Daniele Piomelli, professor of anatomy and neurobiology at the University of California, Irvine.
The two most abundant: tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD).
“THC drives the hallmark features of feeling high, like getting the munchies and feeling relaxed, as well as the negative side effects, like feeling paranoid or anxious,” explains Ryan Vandrey, associate professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.
“CBD can produce drug effects, but it’s not the typical marijuana high,” notes Vandrey. “It’s not intoxicating, and it doesn’t come with THC-like side effects.”
The evidence for CBD is scant
You can buy CBD as an oil, but it’s also sold in everything from water and candy to Willie Nelson’s CBD-infused coffee.
“CBD is promoted as this amazing, natural, healing product,” says Vandrey. “But many claims about CBD haven’t been substantiated in humans.”
Not that CBD is worthless. Last year, the FDA approved a high-dose CBD drug to treat seizures in two rare severe forms of epilepsy. But beyond that, the evidence is preliminary.
Only a few studies have looked at whether CBD relieves anxiety, the most common claim.
In one trial, 57 Brazilian men were randomly assigned to take a placebo or 150, 300, or 600 milligrams of CBD 90 minutes before giving a speech. Oddly, only those who took 300 mg reported lower anxiety during—but not before or after—the speech than placebo takers. (Most of the study’s authors had ties to the CBD industry.)
No long-term trials have tested CBD for occasional anxiety or to treat people with a diagnosed anxiety disorder.
And most studies have used doses of 100 mg or more. Few CBD products have more than 20 mg per dose.
“People are throwing CBD at every condition under the sun at random doses and expecting it to work,” says Vandrey.
“There are a lot of possibilities for CBD,” notes Piomelli, “but they require controlled clinical trials. The smoking gun isn’t there yet.”
CBD can interfere with medicines
In animal and test-tube studies, CBD blocks some forms of an enzyme—cytochrome P450—that metabolizes many medicines, including some statins, calcium channel blockers, and antidepressants.
“We know that CBD can affect the metabolism of drugs, though the extent to which that happens is still not well understood,” says Vandrey.
If you’re considering taking CBD, ask your doctor or pharmacist if it can interfere with your medications. (They should be able to tell you if your medication is metabolized by the same enzyme that CBD blocks.)
Looking for CBD?
Hemp oil is made from hemp seeds and doesn’t have much CBD unless it’s added, because CBD is found in hemp’s leaves and flowers (not its seeds). If you want CBD, look for CBD or cannabidiol listed on the label. If a label lists “cannabinoids,” there’s no way to know how much of that is CBD or if the product simply contains other types of cannabinoids.
But even if you find a product that lists CBD, there’s no guarantee that the amount it lists is correct. For example, only about 30 percent of 84 CBD products that Vandrey bought online were accurately labeled.
“Some contained little to no CBD,” he says. And roughly one in five had detectable levels of THC. “It’s quite possible that the therapeutic benefits people are reporting from CBD are driven by THC, or maybe something else entirely.”
Photo: Matthew Brodeur/unsplash.com.
The information in this post first appeared in the March 2019 issue of Nutrition Action Healthletter.
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What you should know about CBD Cannabis plants contain a class of compounds called cannabinoids. “We’ve identified just over 100 of them,” says Daniele Piomelli, professor of anatomy and